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封裝是指用來在成品晶片周圍形成保護外殼並為輸入/輸出形成外部連接的製程步驟。消費者對更小、更快、功能更強大的行動裝置需求,推動著新興封裝技術的發展。例如,晶圓級封裝(WLP)技術 – 晶片在晶圓上直接封裝,然後分離 ─ 利用凸塊(bumping)和重新佈線層,以及扇出(fan-out)封裝。其他的技術包括利用矽穿孔(TSV),以金屬導電柱(conductive pillar)來連接堆疊的晶片。這些技術會對相關的製程步驟帶來多重挑戰,例如需處理不同的特徵形狀、多種的材料類型、以及嚴苛的散熱問題等。



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