封裝是指用來在成品晶片周圍形成保護外殼並為輸入/輸出形成外部連接的製程步驟。消費者對更小、更快、功能更強大的行動裝置需求，推動著新興封裝技術的發展。例如，晶圓級封裝(WLP)技術 – 晶片在晶圓上直接封裝，然後分離 ─ 利用凸塊(bumping)和重新佈線層，以及扇出(fan-out)封裝。其他的技術包括利用矽穿孔(TSV)，以金屬導電柱(conductive pillar)來連接堆疊的晶片。這些技術會對相關的製程步驟帶來多重挑戰，例如需處理不同的特徵形狀、多種的材料類型、以及嚴苛的散熱問題等。
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Ever open the body of your smartphone (perhaps unintentionally) and see small, black rectangles stuck on a circuit board? Those black rectangles are packaged chips. The external chip structure protects the fragile integrated circuits inside, as well as dissipates heat, keeps chips isolated from each other, and, importantly, provides connection to the circuit board and other elements.