電晶體─亦即晶片的「大腦」─ 是控制電流流向的極小開關，在一顆晶片中可包含高達數十億個電晶體。隨著市場對更小，更強大電子產品的需求，推動了3D FinFET 等新型電晶體架構的發展，並使用高介電值(high-k)/金屬閘等特殊材料。這些新技術和新材料的發展使元件的特徵結構尺寸得以持續微縮。由於現今最新的電晶體尺寸已達到原子級，對製造而言是極大的挑戰。為確保這些先進元件的優異效能，製造功能需提供卓越的精密度與控制，才能形成所需的微小結構。
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We often hear the word “inflection” used in the semiconductor industry, but what does it mean? In general, inflection refers to a point of change. In mathematics, for instance, an inflection point is the place where a curve reverses direction. In terms of technology, an inflection is often identified as a new approach that leads to significant improvement or disruption.
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Transistors are at the heart of our cherished electronics. Millions, or even billions, of these tiny switches go to work for us when we check our mobile phones, use our computers, start our automobiles, or play on our gaming consoles. But what exactly are transistors and how do they work? And how have they changed over the years?