Emergence of several markets, collectively referred to as “more than Moore,” are creating the need for additional clean steps to manage the wafer surface for continued processing. These segments – which include micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and sensors, products for the Internet of Things (IoT), and power devices – require efficient cleaning steps that require removal of a variety of materials. For leading-edge chips, clean processes need to be thorough, yet gentle, to minimize damage to fragile structures. Here, cost efficiency is especially important. In addition, productivity solutions are needed that improve throughput and equipment reliability and availability.