Deposition processes create layers of dielectric (insulating) and metal (conducting) materials used to build a semiconductor device. Depending on the type of material and structure being made, different techniques are employed. Electrochemical deposition (ECD) creates the copper “wiring” (interconnect) that links devices in an integrated circuit. Metal plating of copper and other metals is also used for through-silicon vias and wafer-level packaging applications. Tiny tungsten connectors and thin barriers are made with the precision of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD), which adds only a few layers of atoms at a time. Plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD), high-density plasma CVD (HDP-CVD), and ALD are used to form the critical insulating layers that isolate and protect all of these electrical structures. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is used to enable high performance piezoelectric layers. PLD is a physical vapor deposition method that uses high pulsed energy laser light to energize material, creating a deposition vapor that can be condensed on different substrates.
For the numerous materials and demanding features involved, Lam’s thin film deposition products provide the precision, performance, and flexibility needed for a wide range of challenging device applications.
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